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Stretching & Warm up

Stretching is the activity of gradually applying tensile force to lengthen, strengthen, and lubricate muscles, often performed in anticipation of physical exertion and to increase the range of motion within a joint. Stretching is an especially important accompaniment to activities that emphasize controlled muscular strength and flexibility, such as ballet, acrobatics or martial arts.
Stretching is also believed to help to prevent injury to tendons, ligaments and muscles by improving muscular elasticity and reducing the stretch reflex in greater ranges of motion that might cause injury to tissue. In addition, stretching can reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
There is some controversy over the most effective methods of stretching, and whether some stretches, such as ballistic, or "bouncing", stretches, may actually be harmful.

A warm up is usually performed before participating in (technical) sports or exercising. A warm up generally consists of a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity. For example, before running or playing an intense sport one might slowly jog to warm muscles and increase heart rate. It is important that warm ups should be specific to the exercise that will follows, which means that exercises should prepare the muscles to be used and to activate the energy systems that are required for that particular activity.